A motorcycle petcock, or a fuel valve, is part of its fuel system. It is a small valve that regulates fuel from the tank to the carburetor or fuel injector. You can locate it at the bottom of the gas tank with different controlling positions.
How Does a Motorcycle Petcock Work? A motorcycle petcock works on the principle of gravity or pressure difference created due to the engine’s vacuum. Gravity-fed systems allow fuel flow from the tank to the engine because of their height difference. While in, vacuum-based systems, it controls the gas by opening a diaphragm because of a pressure difference between the gas tank and the engine.
I will explain its different types, positions, and effects on motorbike performance.
Functions of a motorcycle petcock
Its primary function is to control fuel flow from the tank to the carburetor. It is responsible for turning the fuel supply ON and OFF and regulating the fuel flow rate according to the power requirements of the engine.
It has a small lever that you can turn to 3 different positions to control the fuel flow.
Moreover, it has an OFF position to completely shut off the fuel supply from the tank while storing the motorbike for a longer duration.
In older motorbike models without fuel gauges, this part offers a reserve option so that you can cover some distance on the remaining fuel in the tank before reaching any gas station.
Positions of a motorcycle petcock
There are 3 positions on a motorcycle petcock: ON, OFF, and RESERVE. You can change to a specific option by turning a manual valve lever to the respective position.
The ON position allows the fuel to flow from the gas tank to the carburetor or fuel injector. The mechanism of fuel flow can be based on the vacuum created between the tank and carburetor when the engine operates.
It can also be due to gravity, as the valve is usually on the bottom of the tank. The OFF position stops the fuel flow completely.
By changing its valve to the OFF position, you turn OFF the gas supply to the carburetor. This function is quite helpful while parking or storing the motorbike longer.
However, its failure can cause excessive fuel flow to the carburetor, especially in manual valves, and you have to face difficulty starting it.
The third option is the RESERVE position. It allows you to use some remaining fuel in the tank when the primary fuel supply is insufficient to feed the engine.
It also indicates that your motorcycle is running out of gas, and you should look for a station nearby. You can cover a sufficient distance on this reserve supply by turning the petcock to that position.
Working of a motorcycle petcock
The working of a motorcycle petcock depends on its type. For example, in a gravity-based system with a manual controlling valve, fuel flows from the gas tank to the carburetor based on the gravitational pull when it is in the ON position.
Therefore, it is imperative in such models to turn the lever to the OFF position whenever you stop its engine for a longer time.
In a vacuum-based system, a float senses the amount of fuel in the tank. Moreover, it has a diaphragm valve that operates with the help of the engine vacuum, and gas automatically flows according to engine power requirements.
Types of motorcycle petcock valves
The three main types of petcock on motorcycles are manual, electric, and vacuum valve.
Each one has its construction, parts, and working mechanism. Moreover, their usage also depends on the particular model and its manufacturer.
The manual valve is the most basic type of petcock valve. You have to operate it manually by turning the lever to the desired position.
Besides manual operation, it has a controlling mechanism based on the gravitational force to ensure gas flow.
In the ON position, the valve opens to allow fuel flow from the gas tank to the carburetor. In the OFF position, the valve closes, stopping the fuel flow completely.
In the RESERVE position, the valve opens up through a shallow port to allow the reserve supply of fuel to flow toward the engine. The most crucial precaution in these valves is to turn them OFF whenever you stop the bike.
The electric shutoff valve has a function to automatically turn OFF the fuel supply to the carburetor when you turn OFF the key in the ignition switch. It has a solenoid-operated mechanism to control the fuel flow.
For example, a 12VDC power supply from the motorcycle operates the solenoid to open the valve that allows fuel flow to the engine.
While by turning OFF the voltages, it stops the gas, hence no leakage or fire hazard.
Some people also use it as a safety feature besides a manual petcock valve to prevent fuel flooding the carburetor in case they forget to switch it to the OFF position.
The vacuum valve is another type of valve that operates by engine vacuum. You will find it in most new motorcycles because of its superior and automatic controlling mechanism.
A small diaphragm opens and closes the valve depending on the engine vacuum. When the engine runs, the vacuum pulls on the diaphragm, opening the valve to allow fuel to flow.
When you turn OFF the engine, the vacuum is released, and the valve closes, stopping the fuel flow completely.
You need to turn it OFF only in case of storage for an extended time as it has a float that controls the fuel flow when the engine is not running.
Do fuel-injected motorcycles need petcocks?
Most fuel-injected motorcycles do not require petcocks because they have a different fuel system type. In a fuel-injected design, a fuel pump delivers the fuel to the fuel injector, which then sprays it into the cylinders through a nozzle.
Moreover, an ECU controls the operation of the fuel pump and the injectors for optimal flow by taking input from various sensors.
However, some older fuel-injected motorbikes may still have a petcock for the reserve fuel supply or to stop it for maintenance tasks requiring the removal of the gas tank.
What happens if you leave the petcock in the ON position on a motorcycle?
Leaving the petcock in the ON position can cause several problems. In gravity-based systems, if you don’t turn it OFF, there are strong chances that fuel will leak into and flood your carburetor.
Moreover, the same problem can exist if you don’t ride your motorbike for a long time.
Its consequences can be waste of fuel, leakage from the carburetor on the ground, and difficulty in starting the motorbike.
It can also cause the fuel to leak and accumulate near the bike, leading to a potential fire hazard. Therefore, make it your habit to switch the carburetor to OFF every time you park it.
Symptoms of a faulty petcock on a motorcycle
A faulty petcock has several symptoms that can indicate a problem with the fuel system of a motorcycle.
The most common issue you can face is difficulty in starting the bike.
It is because of restricted fuel flow, preventing enough fuel from reaching the carburetor or fuel injector. It can cause its engine to stall or shut off unexpectedly while running the motorbike.
It can also cause poor fuel economy. The reason can be too high or too low fuel flow, causing an imbalance in the air-fuel ratio. Other symptoms can be fuel leaks from the gas tank, which can be a potential fire hazard.
Effect of Petcock on motorcycle performance
It plays a vital role in regulating the fuel flow to the engine. A faulty part can cause several problems affecting the motorcycle’s performance.
These problems can range from difficulty starting the engine to its stalling and poor fuel economy. If fuel flow is too high, excessive gas consumption results in lesser mileage.
Too low can result in engine starvation and loss of power, and you have to face various tuning problems.
This problem becomes severe for racing motorbikes where more fuel flow is required at higher rpm.
How does dual outlet petcock work?
A dual-outlet petcock is a particular type that has two fuel outlets. You can commonly find it on motorcycles with multiple carburetors or fuel injectors.
It allows the fuel to flow through two separate fuel lines, each leading to a different carburetor or fuel injector.
Moreover, triple outlet petcock valves are also available according to the requirement. Besides the increased number of ports, the rest of the functionality is the same as a single-outlet petcock.